Glossary

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BCP: Bleached chemical pulp (includes bleached kraft pulp and all sulphite pulp, including unbleached sulphite). Also known as "white pulp".

BCTMP: Bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp (Market BCTMP is produced mainly in Canada and New Zealand).

BEKP: Bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp (Market BEKP is produced mainly in Latin America and Iberia. Some is also produced in Norway and Thailand).

BHKP: Bleached hardwood kraft pulp (all grades, including BEKP, birch, SMHW, NMHW).

Birch: Bleached birch kraft pulp. Birch is the principal hardwood grade produced in the Nordic countries. Some is also produced in Canada, although for statistical purposes Canadian birch is categorized as northern mixed hardwood - NMHW.

BKP: Bleached kraft pulp (includes all softwood and hardwood kraft pulp.)

BSKP: Bleached softwood kraft pulp (all grades).

BSP: Bleached sulphite pulp.

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Chemically processed pulp: which accounts for approximately 55% of total global pulp production, can be broken down further into sulphate pulp (kraft pulp) or sulphite pulp. The name "kraft" is derived from the German word for "strong". The method involves cooking (digesting) wood chips in an alkaline solution for several hours during which time the chemicals attack the lignin in the wood. The dissolved lignin is later removed leaving behind the cellulose fibres. Sulphite is an old and obsolete production process, and most of the chemical pulp today is produced through the sulphate production process. Chemical pulp can be further categorized into bleached and unbleached. Unbleached Kraft pulp is dark brown in color, so before it can be used in many papermaking applications it must undergo a series of bleaching processes.

CMP: Chemi-mechanical pulp. It is the pulp of ligno-cellulose materials, that are previously treated with chemical reagents, obtained by defibration at an atmospheric pressure.

CTMP: Chemi-thermomechanical pulp. A category of pulp which is produced by a process in which wood chips are treated with chemicals prior to heating and refining. Unbleached CTMP is mainly used in integrated paper mills. Bleached CTMP, dried and sold as market pulp, has grown significantly in importance and is now widely used in the production of many grades of paper, including woodfree papers.

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DIP: Deinked Pulp. Paper pulp produced by deinking of recovered paper.

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Hardwood pulp: is based on short fibre wood species with broad leaves, typically eucalyptus, birch aspen and mixed hardwoods. The hardwoods are simply harder than the softwoods because the fibres are shorter. Shorter fibre makes for denser cellulose fibres, but also for weaker cellulose. Thus, hardwood is well suited for copy paper, while softwood is required for lightweight printing papers and strong packaging papers. Among the bleached market kraft pulps, 55% is softwood pulp and 45% is hardwood pulp.

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LBKP: Leaf bleached kraft pulp, also known as BHKP.

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Mechanically processed pulp: (also known as "high-yield" pulp) is characterized by the fact that a very high percentage (normally in the range of 85 to 95 percent) of the original wood components are retained in the final product. The mechanical processes include groundwood, refiner mechanical, thermo mechanical and chemi-thermomechanical. They are products with high bulk, opacity and absorbency, some qualities that are particularly advantageous in certain use applications, like in the production of newsprint and in publication grades of printing and writing paper. Dissolving pulp is highly purified chemical pulp of special quality, with a very high alpha-cellulose content (usually 90% or more), intended primarily for conversion into chemical derivatives of cellulose and used mainly in the manufacture of viscose staple fibre, solvent spin fibre an filament. These pulps are always bleached. They are used principally as the source of cellulose in the manufacture of such products as manmade fibers, plastics, lacquers, rayon, acetate and explosives. Pulp is produced for internal consumption (integrated pulp) or for external sales (market pulp). Of the total global capacity of 215mn tonnes/year, 48mn tonnes (about 255) are market pulp. For statistical purposes, all pulp which crosses an international border is defined as market pulp, even if it is being transferred between mills belonging to a single company. Bleached chemical pulp (BCP, most of it bleached kraft pulp or BKP) is the main pulp type and accounts for nearly 90% of all market pulp capacity (42.5mn tonnes/year). The integrated capacity of bleached kraft pulp is about 53mn tonnes, bringing the total global capacity of bleach kraft to roughly 95mn tonnes per year. Pulp can be categorized according to what type of wood species is used, or more specifically, the length of the wood fibres. Softwood pulp is based on long fibre wood species. These are typically trees with needles, such as pine and spruce. Pine is the main raw material for chemical softwood pulp, while spruce is excellent for the production of mechanical pulps used in publication papers.

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NBKP: Needle bleached kraft pulp, also known as BSKP.

NBSK: Northern bleached softwood kraft pulp, the industry's benchmark grade of pulp. Market NBSK is produced mainly in Canada and the Nordic countries. Some NBSK is also produced in north-western USA and in Russia .

NMHW: Northern mixed hardwood (kraft) pulp. Sometimes known as NBHK, northern bleached hardwood kraft.

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Pulp: is the main raw material used in the production of virgin-fibre paper and paperboard. Fibres are long structures, formed by a microscopic size plant cell, not wide but long, hollow and with walls that vary in width.

Pulpwood: is wood used to produce pulp that is used in the manufacture of lumber or plywood. Paper can also be produced using non-wood fibres, like straw, bagasse or bamboo. Recycled paper and paperboard uses recovered paper and board instead of virgin fibre. Pulp can be classified by the production process used to separate the three main components of the wood: cellulose, water and lignin. Lignin acts as the cementing agent in wood, binding the cellulose fibres together. This process can be chemical (wood cooked with chemicals), mechanical (wood ground with physical force), or a combination.

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RMP: Refiner Pulp. Pulp produced by subjecting wood chips and/or residues to atmospheric or open-discharge refining.

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Semi-chemical pulp: High-yield pulp produced by a mild chemical treatment of the raw material followed by a mechanical defibrating operation, where the lignin is only partially removed.

SGW: Stone Groundwood Pulp. Pulp produced by grinding wood logs or bolts (usually 4 feet in length) into relatively short fibres.

SMHW: Southern mixed hardwood (kraft) pulp (produced exclusively in the southern United States .)

Sources: Celulose Online, Bracelpa, PPPC and Merrill Lynch.

Semi-chemical pulp: High-yield pulp produced by a mild chemical treatment of the raw material followed by a mechanical defibrating operation, where the lignin is only partially removed.

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TCF: Totally chlorine free. Pulp bleached without the use of any chlorine or chlorinated chemical compounds.

TMP: Thermomechanical Pulp. A high-yield pulp produced by a process in which wood particles are softened by pre-heating under pressure prior to a pressurized refining stage. TMP is generally used at mills producing newsprint and mechanical printing papers. Many older mills have replaced their groundwood and sulphite pulping operations with TMP.

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UKP: Unbleached kraft pulp.

USP: Unbleached sulphite pulp.

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